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What is the Law of Tevhid-i Tedrisat? ?



The Law of Unification of Schooling means the regulation of unity of schooling. It was accepted by the Grand Nationwide Meeting of Turkey on March 3, 1924 and envisages that each one instructional establishments be linked to the Ministry of Schooling (MEB).

The Law of Unification of Schooling is amongst the reform legal guidelines which are protected by Article 174 of the 1982 structure. It is accepted as the fundamental regulation of schooling in the Republic of Turkey and is the foundation for the legal guidelines enacted later.

This regulation; It was ready as a result of there is a necessity for the unification of instructional establishments so as to have the ability to reform in the subject of schooling in Turkey and to implement the ideas of nationality, secularism and modernity.

The Law of Tevhid-i Tedrisat additionally offered the essential infrastructure for the realization of another Atatürk’s revolutions, akin to the closure of dervish lodges, the abolition of Ottoman letters and the implementation of the Alphabet Revolution.

It was enacted on the similar day as the regulation on the abolition of the caliphate and the legal guidelines on the abolition of the Ministry of Sharia and Evkaf.

THE ORIGIN OF THE SCHOOL-MADRESS DIFFERENCE IN EDUCATION

Till the nineteenth century, schooling and coaching actions in the Ottoman society have been principally not inside the scope of the state’s responsibility. After getting into the westernization course of, the state established many western-style instructional establishments in the nation. Together with these establishments, the previous instructional establishments continued their actions.

Whereas the state supported the institution of main colleges known as “iptidai” at main degree by people and associations and the implementation of fashionable educating methods, it educated lecturers to show in these colleges. Nevertheless, main colleges and neighborhood colleges, most of which have been basis establishments and which have been underneath the administration of village and neighborhood imams and their spouses, remained untouched.

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In secondary and better schooling, state help was withdrawn from madrasahs, which have been basis establishments, however they weren’t closed, whereas modern-style center colleges, excessive colleges, sultans, faculties and Darülfünun have been opened.

{People} with opposing views have been rising from establishments that adopted two completely different kinds. This example led to the emergence of a “school-madrasa dichotomy” in the society. At the similar time, international colleges (missionary colleges, minority colleges and faculties) have been lively in the subject of schooling.

In brief, this schooling system, inherited from the Ottoman Empire, had a construction by which differing kinds of schooling coexist. To ensure that the new nationwide social order to be accepted by everybody, it was essential to attach all instructional establishments to a single heart and to be managed on a single foundation.

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PREPARATIONS AND ACCEPTANCE OF THE TEVHID-I TEDRISAT LAW

Mustafa Kemal, the chief of the nationwide wrestle throughout the years of the Conflict of Independence, introduced that he would set up the {People}’s Celebration, in his press assertion dated 7 December 1922, and launched the nine-point program of the celebration. On this paper, the thought of ​​abolishing the madrasahs was put ahead overtly for the first time.

On March 2, at the group assembly of the {People}’s Celebration, 3 completely different draft legal guidelines have been ready. After the regulation negotiations on “the abolition of the Ministry of Sharia and Evkaf and the formation of the Directorate of Spiritual Affairs” have been accepted, the draft regulation on Unification of Schooling was delivered to the agenda with the signature of Saruhan Deputy and Minister of Schooling Vasif Bey and 57 of his associates.

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The justification for the regulation was expressed in the following phrases:People of a nation can solely obtain an schooling. Two sorts of schooling elevate two sorts of individuals in a rustic. This fully destroys the goals of unity of feeling and thought and solidarity.

The subsequent day, the invoice was offered to parliament. After the adoption of the Sharia and Awqaf Law No. 429, the Law of Unification of Schooling was accepted with the Law No. 430 in the Common Meeting of the Grand Nationwide Meeting of Turkey on March 3, 1924.

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IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LAW

Vasıf Bey, Deputy of Schooling, was assigned with the implementation of the Law of Unification of Schooling. The regulation was accepted as the fundamental regulation of schooling and have become the foundation for all legal guidelines enacted later.

CLOSING THE MADRASES

There was no expression in the articles of the Law of Unification of Schooling to shut neighborhood colleges and madrasahs. Nevertheless, Deputy Minister of Schooling Vasıf Bey printed a round in Might and stated:On the grounds that vocational programs can’t be taught in any of the main colleges owned by the Ministry, this is able to be opposite to the unification of schooling.He closed the neighborhood colleges and madrasahs.

REMOVING RELIGION CLASSES

A while after the adoption of the Law of Unification of Schooling “There will not be solely Muslim residents in Turkey, but additionally non-Muslim Turkish residents have spiritual wants and freedom of conscience.With this in thoughts, Qur’an classes have been faraway from the main faculty program, and faith, Arabic and Persian classes have been faraway from the secondary and highschool applications.

The faith course, which was initially made an optionally available course; It was fully faraway from the curriculum in secondary colleges in 1930, in trainer colleges in 1931, in metropolis main colleges in 1933, and in village main colleges in 1939. In consequence of all these developments, a proper schooling expertise was skilled between 1939-1948 by which faith classes weren’t included.

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THE STATUS OF MINORITY SCHOOLS

With the Law of Unification of Schooling, missionary and minority colleges got here underneath the management and supervision of the Ministry of Nationwide Schooling, and non secular and political schooling was prohibited. Historical past, geography, civics and Turkish classes have been added to the curriculum.

Throughout this era, pictures of saints have been faraway from the books taught in minority colleges and it was requested that the crosses on the faculty buildings be eliminated. Overseas colleges that didn’t adjust to the prohibitions of schooling primarily based on spiritual ideas and making spiritual propaganda have been closed.

STATUS OF MILITARY SCHOOLS

With the adoption of the Law of Unification of Schooling, army excessive colleges have been transformed into excessive colleges. Nevertheless, army colleges have been reassigned to the Ministry of Nationwide Protection with a regulation enacted in 1925.

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PROTECTED BY THE CONSTITUTIONS OF 1961 AND 1982

The Law of Tevhid-i Tedrisat, of the 1961 structure “Safety of the Legal guidelines of the RevolutionInside the scope of Article 153 titled ”, it turned one of the 8 legal guidelines whose provisions have been declared to be unconstitutional and incomprehensible and uninterpretable.

In the 1982 Structure,Safety of the Legal guidelines of the RevolutionIt is amongst the 8 legal guidelines that can not be understood and interpreted as being unconstitutional with Article 174 entitled “.

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