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What is Mosaic Art? How is it done? What are the Techniques?


In the introduction of our article, first of all art and art genres We want to give brief information about. Art is structures that are created using various materials or substances. While this definition is of course used only for visual arts such as architecture, sculpture, and painting, there are also phonetic arts made with only sound or words. This group can be given the art of literature in which feelings and thoughts are conveyed in writing and the art of music in which they pour into sound. In this article, we will talk about mosaic art, which is in the visual arts class and özgü been known since ancient times.

Mosaic artAs one of the fields of painting, small three-dimensional and dissimilar parts are brought together and arranged to biçim a picture. Mosaic for the first time five thousand years ago Sumerians It is a painting art tried by. There are two types of mosaic art from those times until today. One is to stick mosaic pieces on concrete, and the other is with glue. It is the gluing of small parts to the floor.

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Small pieces used to reveal mosaic painting are mainly used in ceramics, as well as metal and plastic. The sizes of the pieces may differ from each other. Mosaic art is a painting art that is generally mentioned with the Roman Empire. In this period, mosaic patterns were made of ceramic stones and very small pieces in courtyards, paving stones or house walls. It is possible to see mosaic art pieces belonging to the Roman Empire in Antakya district of Hatay province.

What is Mosaic?

Created by gluing small, colored pieces side by side to pictures and patterns It is called mosaic. The history of mosaic, which is an art branch, goes back to ancient times. The mosaic, whose usage area özgü expanded since its first appearance, is used to increase visual richness in streets, pools, exteriors of houses and many other areas.

In Hatay and Gaziantep Zeugma Mosaic MuseumThere are works made with this technique in. In the Misis Town of Adana’s Yüreğir district, artifacts from the Misis Ancient City are exhibited. Misis Mosaic Museum are available.

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If we briefly talk about the world famous mosaic works; Located north of the Adriatic Sea Ravenna Its mosaics reflect the atmosphere of Italy, rich in cultural heritage. Italy also özgü many precious mosaics in the Apolinare Nuovo Basilica, the Arcivescovile Chapel and the Basilica of San Vitale.

The Romana del Casale Villa, also located in Italy, contains mosaics from the Late Roman Period and özgü been protected by UNESCO. The Bardo Museum in Tunis, the Villa Harvey Mandel in the United States and Park Güell in Spain are the world’s most famous mosaics.

How to Make Mosaic Art?

Considering the works of mosaic art in general of randomly arranged stones Although it looks like the painting that is formed, the application of the arrangement of the stones according to a special technique shows that the mosaic art is also made within the framework of a certain technique. As a first step, the boundaries of the area to be decorated with mosaic are determined and the work begins. Then a plaster layer is prepared to biçim the ground for the mosaics. At this point, mixing tar into the plaster prevents the mosaic structure from detaching from the wall over time.

The main materials of mosaic art consist of natural stones and glass. Usually in mosaic making ceramic Although the material is preferred, it is more marble After the mosaic art gained importance over time, different techniques emerged in the arrangement of the stones and it was necessary to adjust the color tones and to make the transitions between the stones smoothly.

What Are Mosaic Art Techniques?

Mosaic, which is one of the art branches discovered by ancient civilizations and carried until today, is an art that is suitable for development, so different mosaic making techniques have been developed. While the mosaic patterns, which differ according to the size and type of the mosaic stones, have mostly geometric shapes in ancient times, today there are varieties with human and animal figures. Mosaic art techniques are:

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  • Opus Tessellatum (Brick Pattern): It is a type of mosaic in which pebbles are preferred as a material. Instead of pebble stone, ceramic or glass pieces with regular shapes were used on the floors.
  • Opus Vermiculatum (Worm Pattern): In this technique, it is a technique for determining the outer edge of the area to be mosaic first and filling it with the desired shape. In addition to the use of wolf figures, this technique is used on surfaces such as baths and fountains.
  • Opus Regulatum (Grid Pattern): It is the easiest method of mosaic art. A grid pattern is formed as a result of the combination of stones of the same size.
  • Opus Palladianum (Paladian Pattern): The stones used are in random shapes. Palladian pattern is tried to be created by using mostly melted stone pieces.
  • Opus Florentine (Florence Pattern): This technique is mostly used in the Islamic world. In this technique in which fired bricks are used, the pieces are in larger sizes.
  • Opus Classicum (Classic Pattern): In this technique, which consists of the combination of worm and brick patterns, many different patterns emerge. The reason for this is that behind each object a different shape is formed.

What Should Be Considered When Making Mosaics?

It is paid attention that the area to be made mosaic is hard. MDF boards are recommended as the most suitable seminar for this job. Afterwards, the mosaic stones are cut flat on one side and rough on the other, ensuring a solid bonding. Also, taking care to leave the same amount of space between the stones is important for the integrity of the picture. Taking into account the color tone of the work area will ensure the mosaic stone color is set correctly.

The mosaic pieces do not necessarily have to be from the stones we know. Of ceramic, glass, wood and you can even make mosaics from large and small pieces of metal. It is entirely up to you and what kind of painting you choose. In addition to these materials, you can make mosaics using materials such as fabric and paper.

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Of course, these will not be as durable as stone or ceramic. In this direction, we can categorize mosaic art according to the materials used, as well as according to their subjects. In mosaic art, you can depict nature, mythological creatures or figures, geometric shapes, and any shape you can think of.

History of Mosaic Art

Mosaic art Sumerians It is known to occur during the period. However, more works were given in the Roman period. Romans He used geometrically cut stones in his walls and domes at that time. In Christianity, great importance was given to mosaic art. Religious items are painted with mosaic art on the walls of churches.

In Istanbul Hagia Sophia Museum It was decorated with mosaic patterns when it was built. However, after entering the Islamic world, the surface of the walls was covered with plaster since prayers could not be performed in the place where the painting was found. At that time, the mosaic patterns made have survived until today, thanks to at least being covered with plaster instead of being removed. The use of mosaic art from the Roman and Ancient Greek periods for decoration purposes özgü become quite widespread.

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Since it is an easy-to-apply art, anyone can apply mosaic art. One of the reasons why mosaic art is preferred most is its durability. It is stated that even as a result of the heaviest earthquakes, the mosaic structures remain intact.

It is a job that requires extreme attention during its construction. It is quite difficult to arrange small pieces of stones with great skill and bring out the desired picture. Nowadays exteriors of buildings, ceilings of houses, streets and pavements The beauty of mosaic art is used in many places such as.

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