What is Immigration? What are the Causes, Types and Consequences?

Human beings struggle to survive from the first moment they open their eyes to the world. Imagine a newborn baby … As soon as he is born, he knows that he özgü to get his mother’s milk to feed him. From that day on, he starts to hold tight to life. When he grows up and becomes an adult, it is not just enough to survive, this time he wants to live in better conditions. He wants to study in a better city, to work in better jobs, in short to live a better life.

Such preferences we have counted biçim the basis of what we call migration. People change places where they live, sometimes to escape from unemployment, sometimes from war, and sometimes from custom. Actually migrating many times not choice but a necessity özgü been. After all, who wants to leave the lands where they lived since birth and where all their loved ones are together? One of the biggest migrations of our history Migration of Tribes we all know. In this event, which took place between the 4th century and the 6th century, a huge human migration from Asia to Europe took place.

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The reasons for the Migration of Tribes, which took place in the pages of history, were both the very bad climatic conditions and the sovereignty established by China. Every migration that takes place özgü a cause and effect. After the Migration of Tribes; The First Age ended and the Middle Ages began, some empires collapsed and the migrating tribes united and new states were established. Let’s try to understand the reasons, types and consequences of the concept of immigration in much more detail.

What is Immigration?

In the simplest and most basic definition of migration; peoples is to leave the geography they live in and move to another place. Migration, which can be individual or social; political, religious, climatic, economic, war and social There are many reasons, including. Again, migrations can be short-term or permanent. For example, seasonal workers are in the temporary migration group.

Migration is an action that animals as well as humans have to do. Birds, fishes and many other living things migrate at certain times of the year. Some fish migrate to warmer parts of the sea to spawn, and some birds migrate to warmer climates to live.

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At the basis of all migrations a desire to survive and live better lies down. Although almost all of them are compulsory, sometimes there are voluntary migrations. We will touch on the consequences of migration shortly, but the most important and major consequence of migration is that it affects the population. In other words, while the population of one place decreases, the population of another place increases.

What are the Causes of Migration?

As we mentioned above, migration can have many reasons. For example, one of the reasons for the Tribal Migration was climate change. Bad weather conditions and increased drought caused people to not even find food to eat. Let’s come from ancient history to the present. For years, we have been following the migrations from Syria to our country and other European countries as a whole.

Statements made state that the number of people coming from Syria özgü reached 3 million. This means that Turkey was an increase in population of 3 million. Although many of us are uncomfortable with this situation, considering that the reason for their migration is the war in their country for years, we have no other way to give them their right.

These were the first examples that everyone knows about why migrations occur. Now, let’s try to explain the reasons for migration for you readers.

  • Social Causes: Education and health are at the top of the list of social reasons. Honor killings, especially in the east, are another reason for migration. People who escaped from the blood feud and fled to other cities usually stay where they fled and establish a new life.
  • Natural Causes: Natural disasters such as drought, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, erosion and landslides can often be too severe to leave a space for people to live. Such natural events constitute the causes of natural migration.
  • Political Reasons: War is at the top of the list of political reasons. People fleeing war have to go to other countries. In addition, border changes, exchanges and revolutions are among the political reasons.
  • Economic reasons: Undoubtedly, all of you think of unemployment when it comes to economic reasons. Especially migrations from rural areas to the city are in this category. Inequality in income distribution, lack of livelihood, or lack of agricultural land forced people to migrate. Again, the lack of mechanization and manpower in agricultural areas is the reason for the migration from the village to the city.
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What are the Types of Migration?

Just as migration özgü more than one reason, its types can be grouped in the same way. However, we can basically divide migration into two main categories as internal and external migration. These are again examined in separate classes among themselves.

Internal Migrations

Within the same country borders, Migration from one place to another is defined as internal migration. Internal migrations are generally migrations from villages to cities. There is no change in the population of the country in this type of migration. However, while the population of the rural areas decreases, the population of the cities increases. Internal migrations are not only from village to city;

  • From the countryside to the countryside
  • From the countryside to the city
  • City to city
  • It can also be done from urban to rural areas.

Internal migrations are divided into two as seasonal and continuous migrations.

Seasonal (Temporary) Migrations

Seasonal migrations; transhumance and tourism It includes worker migration for areas such as. Remember the holiday towns you visit in summer such as Alanya, Çeşme and Bodrum. You will see that many personnel working in the facilities come from eastern provinces. The same is true in places where there are ski centers such as Uludağ and Erciyes where winter tourism is carried out.

These are examples of worker migration in the tourism sector. People who leave their homes for a few months to work in agricultural fields and highlands also migrate seasonally. Even in public seasonal worker The term is used. For example, we see that between September and January, when citrus fruits are harvested, many groups of workers migrate to Mediterranean provinces such as Adana and Mersin.

Continuous Migrations

We can say almost the same things about constant migrations. There may be those who migrate to different cities in order to find a job, those who want their children to receive education in better conditions, or those who want to get away from bad weather conditions and live in a clean atmosphere. The only difference from seasonal migration is that they are made permanently, that is, the immigrant does not return to his former residence.

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Foreign Migrations

As the name suggests, out of country borders migrations are out migrations. These can also be permanent or temporary. The reasons underlying external migration are; war, religious pressures, unemployment are such factors. Apart from these, the most important example of emigration that özgü been increasing since 1960 is it is a brain drain. Foreign migrations forced migrations It is also called.

Unfortunately, some people who believe that they cannot make the career they want in our country may choose other countries to do their work. Trained nearly half of the people who emigrated from Turkey in 2017, according to recent data and create younger individuals.

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Brain drain is described as the biggest loss. Because, if a well-equipped and trained employee goes to other countries, this helps the development. Countries that give the most brain drain directly affecting the level of development between countries; Iran, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Philippines and Pakistan. The countries with the most brain drain are; Germany, Canada, France, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, USA and Australia.

What Are the Consequences of Migration?

After explaining what migration is, its causes and types, let’s come to the results. This situation, which affects domestic or inter-country geographies, özgü very important consequences. Migrations, which do not cause any damage at first, reach problems that are difficult to solve as time passes. In particular, the hardship of migration to Turkey is one of the city’s most villages of the country you live in. Here are some of the results of immigration;

    • Due to the migration from the village to the city, urbanization deteriorates and the slum sorun occurs.
    • Population distribution is disproportionate in internal migration and the balance is disrupted.
    • Industrial establishments, normally built outside the city center, stay in the city after a while.
    • Places such as hospitals and schools become crowded and quality services cannot be provided.
    • Noise and air pollution increases.
    • Cultural conflicts may arise due to religious differences in foreign migration to different countries.

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