Feminists, who stand by oppressed women around the world, also stand against patriarchy. It is a world view that seeks justice in terms of gender, far from the common beliefs of being alone and hating men. The point of departure is also women’s rights It is related to. For example; Higher wages for men and lower wages for women are a worldwide sorun. Moreover, these problems have been encountered and brought to the agenda even in giant companies such as Google. This is where feminism arises.
What is Burnout Syndrome? Causes, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment
The existence of feminists struggling with issues such as class, racism and gender inequality Since the 1700s are encountered. The gender discrimination, which was felt more intensely in those times, is a situation that can be seen in all societies today, regardless of the level of development. Feminist movements emerge when women’s education and business life are ignored and they are seen as ‘ineffective’ in total. We wanted to discuss the details about this view, which is accepted as a philosophy, for you.
What is Feminism?
Feminism Latin femina It is a word derived from the word. Its basis, In french It is based on feminism. Equality is the destruction of the differences in conditions between social groups, understood as being at the same level in every sense. The existence of inequality between men and women in the world özgü led to the purpose of feminism to improve the place of women in society and to create a real equality situation.
Women may come to mind first when feminism is mentioned, but there are also men who advocate feminism. The movement of feminism özgü emerged from the gender inequality experienced in society. The aim is to prove the existence of real equality by showing that women also have a place and a voice in society. Feminism consists of behaviors and attitudes that are advocated against the restriction of women’s freedom in every field in political, sociological and ethical terms.
In June 1993, for the first time in the United Nations process on women’s rights, World Human Rights Conference in Viennaentered in. Women who took action from many parts of the world organized a large women’s human rights campaign with the participation of women’s organizations and independent women, “The human rights of women and girls are inseparable, indivisible and indispensable with universal human rights” they announced their thesis. After this successful initiative, they were able to reach an agenda-setting position in official conferences.
Fundamentals of Feminism
The basis of feminism is mostly for women to be free is based. He focused on analyzing the factors believed to have a relationship with gender. Again, it mostly focuses on researching and resolving gender inequality and women’s rights, women’s general problems.
Feminism, with its foundation on women’s freedom, explores and analyzes gender-related issues. As a result, it undertakes activities, actions and initiatives that will raise awareness. The aim is to eliminate gender inequality and make it accepted that women can exist successfully in every field. In short, it is to investigate and solve general women’s problems.
The first feminists Lady Marry Montagu and Marquis de Condorcet are Age of Enlightenment thinkers. These two names defended women’s right to education and took the first steps of feminism. In this way, it became a philosophy and gained its present meaning. Today, although different meanings are tried to be given, the basis of which lies in the recognition of the existence and importance of women in life.
Feminism, with a foundation that advocates equality between women and men, it is not just an opinion defended by women. Likewise, men can also be members of feminist thought. The fact that this is the case is proof that they advocate gender equality. Men also defend that women can be successful in every field, maintain their existence in a strong way, and have rights such as education.
The foundation of feminism historically, It marks the French Revolution of 1789. Because in this period, thoughts such as equality and freedom started to be produced. Therefore, the first struggles were seen in this period. Researchers on this subject, on the other hand, admit that feminism emerged as a result of the advancement of industry, science and technology, the dissolution of feudalism, the concentration of the population in certain centers, and the change in traditional ties and mentality.
What is Feminism?
People who defend, support and analyze the idea of feminism are called feminists. Feminists are not just women. Equality between men and women There are also men who advocate. In today’s conditions, the reactions of those who support feminism have become more pronounced and increased.
Researches and studies are still ongoing and various changes are taking place. However, in the period starting from 1960 until today, the issues have been accepted as follows:
- Equality of men and women in the legal field It is one of the issues of interest in feminism. Issues such as the imbalance in the income rates of women and men and the rate of inequality in employment are mostly covered.
- The relationship between feminism and other social movements in the field of philosophy is one of the important issues of feminism.
- Sexual identities The inequality of men and women is one of the issues that feminism stands against and therefore deals with.
- In a sexual sense It is to ensure the autonomy of women and men. In particular, the disrespect for women’s sexual rights is in the interest of feminism.
Origin of Feminism
The origins of feminism go back to the age of enlightenment. An important free thinker in the Enlightenment age Lady Marry Montagu and Marquis de condorcet; It attracted attention by defending women’s right to education. The idea of feminism that started in this way özgü become a philosophy and reached its definition in the çağdaş sense. The first scientific community for women was formed in the Netherlands in 1785. The first British woman writer to see feminism in our lives as a publication Mary WollstonecraftA Vindication of the Rights of Woman. This book was introduced to feminism in 1792.
The realization or perception of unfair treatment of women occurred in the 19th century. As this belief proliferated, feminism began to become organized. Giving this movement the name feminism socialist Charles Fourier özgü been. The first meeting of women took place in New York in 1848. Then, in the early 20th century, after the outbreak of World War I, women were given the right to vote.
What Are Feminist and Feminist Approaches?
Although feminist theory and feminism are associated with each other, they have separate emphasis. Feminist theory stems from the women’s movement, which is a social phenomenon. Feminism, on the other hand, is a theory that emerges when women develop together with phenomena such as religion, color, race, society and class, due to the fact that women are not a homogeneous concept that can be handled alone. So there are different feminism and feminist theories.
Let us briefly familiarize yourself with the different feminist and feminist approaches:
Enlightenment Liberal Feminism
The first proponents of Enlightenment liberal feminism emerged in 1970 in America. A revolutionary who participated in the French Revolution Olympe de Gouges The work entitled Women’s Rights written by Ş. is considered the first basic text. Another text is the Justification of Women’s Rights, written by Mary Wollstonecraft in 1970.
Basic ideas of Enlightenment liberal feminism; The belief in reason is the belief that the spirits of men and women are the same as their rational abilities, and that education is the best way to affect social change and the transformation of society. Another idea is that the individual is a solitary entity acting as a rational and independent actor who seeks the truth apart from other individuals and whose dignity depends on his independence.
It is an approach aimed at broader cultural change rather than focusing on political change. It is the approach against seeing women as secondary individuals not only in policies and management styles but also in societies where they are more present. They also think that men and women are different.
Cultural feminism özgü been used specifically to attack the oppressive system of religion. Elizabeth Cady StantonThe book titled The Bible of Women was created based on this thought. He believed that while Christianity was rejected, patriarchy would also be rejected. That is why he wrote an alternative and non-sexist Bible to the existing Bibles.
Anarchist Feminist Theory
Although it becomes evident on feminists who are more committed to anarchist thought, it is not limited to this. It is also stated that anarchism lays the groundwork for feminism to realize itself. Anarchism wages war on all the institutions that feminism stands against.
Marxist Feminist Theory
Marxism and feminism are considered to be irreconcilable but mutually valuable theories. Class war, a Marxist category, is gender blind and does not consider women as a separate category. In this context, while the difference of Marxist feminist theory is constructed over the class, it does not see women as a separate category of women under the ‘working class’.
Marxist feminists argue for the similarity between women and their lower social class. In addition, it adopts the view that men and women have equal rights within the scope of the manager. However, in this approach biggest subject of discussion It is the state of whether women have a class. Because Marxist thought does not see women as a separate group.
Socialist Feminist Theory
It is a bridge between Marxist and radical feminisms. As a result of the integration of capitalism with imperialism, production relations cause class exploitation, reproduction relations and sexual oppression. Socialist feminist theory, on the other hand, tends to gömü women with a common identity independent of class.
What is Ego? How to Understand? What are the harms?
Radical Feminist Theory
It accompanies a movement in the 1960s that speaks of women’s liberation and liberation. Second wave feminism It is considered to be the core and driving force. He sees patriarchy as the main reason for the oppression and subordination of women. It demands a radical change in this hierarchical sexist system. At the same time, it is the rape of the patriarchal control power founded on the female body and the media representation of the female body.
Feminism in Turkey
where communities of feminist women in Turkey September 12 özgü broken its silence with its history. Name of this community Progressive Women’s Associationis. İKD used to be a group whose ideology was socialism, but after the 1980s it is a community that managed to turn to women’s rights. It is also the first community and experience occurring GCP on behalf of women’s struggle in Turkey. The first organization, apart from İKD, based on feminism, was a publishing house founded in 1984. Publisher’s name Women’s Circleis.
Over time, they have developed into an organization where women reach each other and have started to actively produce a politics. The first magazine published by this publishing house was also on feminist lines and was not similar to any magazine published before. Apart from these, in addition to the voting right given to all women of the world; for the first time in our country Mustafa Kemal Mustafa Kemal Atatürk by; and then the right to be elected for women all over the world.