Colon cancer stands out as the commonest kind of cancer after lung cancer in Turkey. One of many greatest the reason why colon cancer is so widespread in Turkey is consuming habits.
Stating that pink meat, processed meat merchandise, high-fat and calorie foods and chemical merchandise produced by cooking sure foods at excessive temperatures enhance the danger of colon cancer. Normal Surgical procedure Specialist Prof. Dr. Ilker Sücüllü, He made statements concerning the unknowns about colon cancer and the precautions to be taken.
WHAT IS COLON CANCER?
Cancer happens when cells start to multiply uncontrolled within the physique. Cells throughout our physique can turn into cancerous. The realm of origin of this from the colon known as colon cancer. Most colon cancers begin with small formations known as ‘polyps’ within the internal layer of the colon. It takes a very long time, about 5 to 7 years, for polyp varieties to show into cancer. There isn’t any rule that each polyp will flip into cancer.
Adenomatous polyp (adenoma): These polyps can flip into cancer. These are lesions that aren’t but cancerous, however have a excessive chance of turning into cancer. The commonest kind of colon cancer is adenocarcinoma, an irregular development of 95 % of the cells that make up the glands lining the colon or rectum.
Hyperplastic polyp: It’s the extra widespread kind of polyp. They don’t flip into cancer to a big extent. The colon wall consists of many layers. Colon cancer begins from the innermost layer known as the mucosa and could be carried to distant components of the physique by rising into different layers and even in direction of the encircling lymph and blood vessels.
RISK FACTORS IN COLON CANCER
The age issue is essential, the danger will increase considerably after the age of fifty. As well as, with illnesses akin to inflammatory bowel illness, persistent or ulcerative colitis, the gut is confronted with a long-term inflammatory situation, which in time can flip into pre-cancerous lesions known as dysplasia. Due to the danger of colon cancer, this illness group needs to be adopted up at an earlier age and at extra frequent intervals.
On the identical time, having a household historical past of colon cancer or adenomatous polyp (irregular development of cells that kind the glands lining the colon or rectum) or having a first-degree relative with colon cancer means a excessive threat. As well as, the truth that this relative was identified with colon cancer youthful than the age of 45 will increase the danger much more. On common, 1 in 5 sufferers has a household historical past of colon cancer analysis. For that reason, colonoscopy management is advisable across the age of 35-40, with out ready for the age of fifty, for folks with a household historical past.
Though there isn’t a sure technique that may shield from colon cancer, the danger could be decreased by being attentive to the preventable threat components of the individual. With common screenings, colon cancer could be detected at an early stage, which could be fully cured. Cancer could be prevented by colonoscopic removing of polyps that haven’t but become cancer. The interval between the start of the expansion of irregular cells and the formation of polyps and the event of colon cancer is roughly 7-10 years. With common screening, it’s doable to take away polyps earlier than they kind cancer.
Screening ought to start at age 50 for sufferers with out threat components. A colonoscopy each 10 years is the gold normal. With this examination, not solely cancer is detected, but additionally polyps, that are the precursors of cancer, can each be discovered and eliminated. Colonoscopy may also be a therapy device. In sufferers for whom colonoscopy isn’t appropriate, sigmoidoscopy each 5 years (brief colonoscopy) and occult blood within the stool are different alternate options.
Screening needs to be began for individuals who have colon cancer of their shut relations akin to mom, father, sibling, 40 years outdated or 10 years earlier than the youngest relative identified with cancer. If the primary colonoscopy is regular, follow-up needs to be continued with an interval of 5 years.
COLON CANCER SYMPTOMS
Look of blood within the stool: Stool could also be shiny pink or darkish black in coloration. It may be seen in 35-60% of sufferers or there may be occult blood within the stool.
Abdomen ache: There could also be intermittent stomach ache within the type of cramps.
Change in defecation habits: 25% of sufferers might have durations of constipation or diarrhea that may last more than per week. Fecal-wide thinning could be seen.
Weakening: Weight reduction can happen with out weight-reduction plan. Intestinal obstruction: It happens when the tumor rising in sufferers causes obstruction within the gut. It’s a drawback that must be solved urgently.
Perforation (perforation) within the gut: Perforation might develop with the obstruction attributable to the tumor. On this case, it’s a state of affairs that requires emergency surgical procedure, identical to within the obstruction.
About 3 % of sufferers wouldn’t have any signs.
COLON CANCER TREATMENT METHODS
Colon cancer therapy; It’s carried out beneath the supervision of a multidisciplinary board consisting of specialists typically surgical procedure, oncology, nuclear medication, radiology and pathology. Surgical therapy could be carried out with open surgical procedure, laparoscopic surgical procedure and robotic surgical procedure strategies. The a part of the colon containing the cancer is surgically eliminated, after which each remaining intact ends are tied collectively.
Colon surgical procedures carried out with the open technique are doable with an extended incision within the stomach pores and skin. Put up-operative ache and intra-abdominal adhesions attributable to this lengthy incision delay the hospital keep and return to regular each day life.
In laparoscopic surgical procedure, the surgeon makes a half-centimeter incision and inserts a skinny steel telescope system known as a laparoscope into the stomach. After the surgeon evaluates the situation and extent of the illness within the stomach, different surgical devices are positioned within the stomach by different small incisions and the operation is began. The diseased colon half is taken out of the physique by a small incision.
Not each affected person or illness is appropriate for laparoscopic surgical procedure. An important factor for sufferers and surgeons is the conclusion of a profitable surgical procedure, irrespective of which method is utilized. Due to this fact, expertise and expertise are crucial for a profitable laparoscopic surgical procedure. Laparoscopic surgical procedure; As a result of small incisions made, the postoperative hospital keep and the time to return to each day life are shorter, the postoperative ache is far much less, and the scarring from the incision websites is much less. Due to these options, sooner restoration is noticed in laparoscopic surgical procedure.
PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN
Elements that cut back the danger of colon cancer with common food regimen and bodily exercise: Weight acquire and weight problems, which cause a rise in stomach circumference, needs to be prevented, smoking and alcohol needs to be averted, consumption of pink and unprocessed meat needs to be decreased, vitamin D and calcium ranges needs to be stored at regular ranges, hormone remedy through the transition to menopause, common use of aspirin.
Being obese or overweight: It’s a threat issue for each sexes, barely extra in males.
Bodily exercise: The absence of a bodily lively life-style places an individual in danger. Common 30-60 minutes of train a day reduces the danger by 40 %.
Vitamin habits: It’s clearly recognized that pink meat, processed meat merchandise, excessively fatty and calorie foods, and chemical merchandise produced by cooking foods at excessive temperatures (barbecue, grilling) enhance the danger of colon cancer. As well as, a high-fiber food regimen wealthy in grains, greens and fruits, and probiotics cut back the danger. Smoking and alcohol enhance the danger of colon cancer.
Multivitamin help: Common use of folic acid, vitamin D and calcium preparations can cut back the danger.
Presence of colon polyps or colon cancer within the household: In such a case, getting genetic counseling and having p-genetic exams can cut back the danger.
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