Canada’s Land and climate

Canada is the second largest country on earth. It has three ocean borders:

the Pacific Ocean in the west
the Atlantic Ocean in the east
the Arctic Ocean to the north

Canada borders the United States in the south and in the northwest.

Canada has many different types of landscape, including:

high mountains
prairie grasslands
different types of forests
arctic tundra where the ground is permanently frozen

Canada is also home to many rivers and lakes.


In Canada, there are four different seasons:

autumn (fall)

The Atlas of Canada has information on Canada’s geography and climate. You can also see the weather forecasts for every city and town in Canada.


Winter is very cold in most places with temperatures often below zero degrees Celsius. Snow covers the ground from around December to March or April. In southwest British Columbia (around Victoria and Vancouver), rain is more common in winter than snow.

Depending on where you’re immigrating from, you may be quite surprised by the cold and snow during your first Canadian winter. With the right clothing, you’ll be prepared to enjoy the unique beauty of a Canadian winter. Be sure to buy:

a hat
a winter coat


Summer lasts from around June to September and the weather varies from warm to hot. Daytime temperatures are between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius or Centigrade (68 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit) or higher. In southern Ontario and Quebec, it can often be very humid.

Fall and spring

Fall and spring are transition seasons. This means the weather starts getting colder or warmer, and there is a lot of rain.

Cities, provinces and regions

Ottawa is the capital city of Canada and is located on the Ottawa River between Ontario and Quebec.

Canada has 10 provinces and three territories, each with its own capital city. These provinces and territories are grouped into five regions:

Atlantic Provinces:
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Central Canada:
Prairie Provinces:
West Coast: British Columbia
Northwest Territories
Yukon Territory

Most people live in southern Ontario and Quebec, southwest British Columbia and Alberta. Much of the north has a very low population because of the cold climate.


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